Korea has a typical temperate climate with distinct seasonal changes. The average annual temperature is around 8°C to 12°C. The temperature of the coldest January ranges from -5°C to -10°C in average while that of the hottest August from 23°C to 27°C in average. The average annual rainfall is a moderate 1,000-1,200 mm.
Korea's climate is influenced by typical seasonal winds. It is blessed with 2,280-2,780 hours of sunlight annually, recording more hours than the other countries lying on the same latitude.There are also distinct dry and rainy seasons. Dry season is from April to June and rainy season July and August.
The Korean peninsula is alternately visited by different air currents causing climatic variations according to the season. In the winter cold and clear weather prevails due to the dry and cold north and northwest winds, whereas in the summer damp and warm south and southeast winds, which are formed at the tropical regions of the Pacific, blow in from the sea, bringing heavy rainfall.In the spring and autumn the influences of the Asian continent and the Pacific Ocean alternately affect Korea with shifting winds. As a result, relatively warm and clear weather prevails with little rainfall.
Considering the size of its territory, Korea has considerable regional differences in climate. There is a range of different climates from the subtropical on the south coast to the subarctic in the alpine regions of the north, climatic phenomena ranging according to region. This is because Korea lies stretched from the north to the south on the middle latitudes where latitudinal variations in the amount of solar radiation are greatest, and in addition it has a complicated terrain and is surrounded by sea on three sides.
Varieties of animals and plants live in the mountains, plains, rivers, lakes and seas of Korea, which add charms to the nature. As it belongs to one of the rich regions in the world with varieties of species of animals, Korea has 97 species of beasts, 394 species of birds, 27 species of reptiles, 14 species of amphibians and 850 species of fish. Plants also have abundant species for its territorial size and its location of phytoclimate.
The higher plants are 4,300 species, lower plants 5,300 species by research up to now. There are roughly 100 species of timber trees, 100 species of fibre plants, 900 species of medicinal plants, 50 species of oil-bearing trees, 60 species of aromatic plants, 300 species of edible herbs, 160 species of feed plants, 170 species of bee plants and 300 species of garden plants.
Korean peninsula is rich in spas and springs for its area. 156 mineral springs (100 springs and 56 spas) well up in the DPR Korea.
Famous spas are Kyongsong, Onpho, Ryonggang, Yangdok, Oegumgang, Sinchon, Unsan, Talchon, Songhwa, Ongjin, Paechon, Kilju and so on. The hottest spa is Ongjin Spa (103-104eC) whereas Sokthang Spa has the richest yield (5,000 m3 per day).
Famous springs are Sambang, Changsong, Kangso, Okhodong, Kwangmyong, Chimgyo, Taedong, Oknyu and so on. Most of the springs are sodium calcium bicarbonate springs (Kangso and Kwangmyong) and aluminium sulphate iron springs (Kobangsan and Songhak) that include much free carbon dioxide
The peninsula is abundant in underground resources. Therefore, it has been called as a "specimen gallery of valuable minerals". The minerals are known more than 300 kinds and over 200 varieties of minerals are of industrial value. It is also endowed with large deposits of minerals.
Lie underground are ferrous metals including magnetic iron and limonite, nonferrous metals including gold, silver, white gold, natrium, aluminium, magnesium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc. It is also rich deposited of aphatite, alunite, potassic feldspar, virgin sulfur, pyrite, plaster, magnesite, talc, kaolin, diamond, ruby, sapphire, limestone, dolomite, granite, basalt and resources for fertilizers, chemicals, fireproof materials, ceramics, electronic industry, insulating materials and building materials. Lignite, soft and hard coals of thermal value have been buried inexhaustibly underground. These resources have been fully used for the development of economy and improvement of people's livelihood.